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Record-breaking average global temperatures coincided with the researching, writing, and publication of The Frigid Golden Age.
A simple illustration of a lee shore. Ships on the "weather side" have the "weather gage" over a fleet on the "lee side." Sketch by Hans van der Maarel, Red Geographics.
Top: time, in days, that VOC vessels travelling from Texel to Batavia spent at the Cape of Good Hope (red) and applicable secondary destinations (blue) between 1598 and 1708. Bottom: time, in days, that VOC vessels travelling from Batavia to Texel spent at the Cape of Good Hope (red) and other secondary destinations (blue) from 1597 to 1708. Linear regression and a 20-year moving average highlight trends in both graphs. Ships that stopped at no secondary ports en route to Batavia are not listed, and these gaps read as zeroes for the trend lines.
Winter severity (shaded area) and ship passages through the Sound in December, January, and February, and totals for all three months, from the winter of 1634/35 to the winter of 1724/25. Order 2 polynomial regression shows matching trends for winter severity and Dutch winter passages through the Sound. Compiled using statistical tools available through the Sound Toll Registers Online.
Wind velocity measurements taken by Narbrough, Legge, Haddock, and the captain of the Mary Rose between 7 January 1672 and 21 September 1673 (in English Old Style dates), converted to the Beaufort (BF) Scale of wind velocity. Winds at BF 8 and up are severe and should be rare, and storms at BF 10 and up should be rarer still. This graph shows just how common storms were after the allied fleet left port in July 1672.